Translation revised by Michael S. Howard, Feb. 2012
Here we report, for better readability, the regulations on permitted and prohibited games found in Italian Statutes, that have been presented by us in random order in some essays. We also recommend the article Allowed Triumphs, Forbidden Triumphs for knowledge of the subject in reference to the cities of Assisi and Mattarella.
Statuta, seu Leges Pistoriensium, 1371
Specimen Statutorum Civitatis Auximatis
Ex Libro III
De pœna Ludentium ad ludum Azardi, sive Taxillorum, vel alias prohibitum, R. 52.
Ad ludum Azardi, vel Taxillorum, vel ad ludum tabularum, sive alearum, vel ad ludum pistarum, sive lapidum, vel cimorum laqueat....vel pilorum , vel virghentarum, vel ad alium ludum, in quo denarii, vel res aliae perderentur, vel vincerentur praeter infrascriptos casus exceptuatos ludens faciens, sive jocans in centum fol. den. pro quolibet, & vice quali ber puniatur. Tenens autem, aut receptans, aut patiens ludi, vel ludum fieri, aut lusores ad ludendum ad aliquem de praedictis ludis in domo rehabitatione, vel Possessione propria, vel conducta qualibet vice in duplum praedictae quantitatis, & paenae puniatur nisi talis in Cive loco aliquo praedictorum committerentur notificaverit nostro Potestati, vel ejus officialibus statim, &....sit expeditus, quo casu non teneatur ad paenam. Praestans vero ad aliquem ludum de praedictis aliquem denarium, vel monetam, aut pecuniam aliquam, vel aliquod pignus puniatur pro quolibet, & qualibet vice in XX. fol. den., & quod praestaverit, perdat omnino, nec super hiis audiatur in jure Tabulerium lumen taxillos, vel aliquod fimile ad aliquid praedictorum mutuans comodans, vel etiam dans per se, vel alium in XX. fol. den. pro quolibet, & vice qualibet puniatur. Excipimus a praedictis pœnis omnes, & singulas personas , quae praedicta ì, vel aliquid praedictorum commiserit in vigilia Nativitatis D. N. Jesu Christi cum tribus diebus sequentibus, in quibus Potestas, seu Vicarius possit, & valeat concederé licentiam generalem ludendi, & praedicta faciendi. Item excipimus omnino ludum scaccorum, qui ex ingenio, & non ex fortuna dependet; Item ludum tabularum de totis tabulis similiter excipimus, in quibus licite ludi praestari, & receptari possit nulla praedictarum pœnarum obstante, praeterque in taberna, vel in aliquo ubi vinum venderetur, in quo sine aliqua exceptione ex praedictis omnia, & singula, & quodlibet praedictorum fieri, vel committi prohibemus expresse sub pœnis praedictis volumus, & quod de praedictis, & quidlibet praedictorum, quibus possi: accusare, denuntiare, & referre, & si voluerit, teneatur ejus nomen secretum, & si luxerit, vel aliquid comiserit ad ipsum ludum notificatum non teneat ad aliquam pœnam, siquidem retulerit, vel notificaverit eadem die, & solus....ad notitiam regiminis aliter venerit, & de talibus delictis, & quolibet eorum stetur, & credatur juramento, & dicto referentis cum uno teste fide digno, & bonae famae, & etiam libere credatur, & stetur inventioni, & relationi cujusliber ufficiali birruarij vel familiariis, & omnes , & singulae dictae poenae solvant, & exigantur de facto sine omni processu, & solemnitate juris.
Rubric 99 of the Statutes of Viterbo, dated to the XIVth century, condemned those gambling in taverns or other places where wine was sold by the glass or otherwise. The game was forbidden day and night and before night and day: i.e. always. One thing that here and in other documents is highlighted was the right to denounce those who contravened the order. The informers received 50% of the seized amount, while the rest became property of the Curia (at that time Viterbo was under the dominion of the Church).
De pena ludentium in taberna de die, vel de nocte, ante, vel post.
Nemo de die, vel de nocte ludere audeat in taberna, vel ante, vel post, vel in aliqua alia domo ubi venditur vinum minutim, vel ad numeratum, ad aleas, vel ad taxillos, vel ad aliquem alium ludum: et qui contra fecerit puniatur in LX solidis: que pena exigi possit quocunque denuntiante: cuius pene medietas sit denuntiatoris et alia curie.
On the other hand, Rubric 100 condemned the innkeepers that sold wine in the manner above described, since they not only allowed gambling, but even gambling that occurred after the first sound of the bells of the Angelus.
Quod tabernarii non permictant aliquem ludere in taberna, et quod non substineant aliquem ludum post primama campanam.
Tabernarii, vel qui vinum vendunt, non permictant aliquem ludere in taberna aliquo ludo unde acquiratur aliquid, vel perdatur, et post primam pulsationem campane sancti Angeli aliquem non substineant, nec permictant in tabernis suis morari, nec postea recipiant venientes ad bibendum, vel comendum.......
Statutes of Saluzzo, 1480
Caput 359: De ludentìbus ad taxillos, cartas et sautarellam
Item statutum est, quod qui luserit ad ludum taxillorum, cartarum, saltarelle, ad denarios argentum vel aurum, vel ad requìtum, in Saluciis vel posse, solvat bamnum omni vice de die solidorum viginti, et de nocte duplum; et qui mutuaverit denarios, taxillos, saltarellam vel cartusellas, solvat bamnum solidorum decem Viannensium. Salvo quod quilibet possit ludere ad ludum cartusellarum longum, clichum, triumphos seu almenez: et quilibet bone fame possit accusare et habeat terciam partem bamni: et quod nec potestas, nec clavarius, nec famuli curie dare possint licentiam ludendi aliquo tempore sub pena periurii et librarum decem pro quolibet et qualibet vice.
In the 1483 Statutes of Crema we find (63): “Nullus ludat ad bisclaciam taxillos vel ad cartas in nundinis et si qui contrafecerit quod poena duplicetur. Ibidem. (64): Ed intelligatur bislacia ominis ludus taxillorum et cartarum: et exceptis ludis triumphorum et schachorum", and, from the 1534 Statutes (89) of the same city, we know that the game of triumphs and those of tarot (1) and also chess were still legal: "Quilibet possit ludere ad tabulas et schacos et triumphos et tarochum de die et de nocte".
The games of Triumphs and Tarot were then two different games. In fact in the sixteenth century Ludus Tarochorum meant the game composed of 22 triumphs and 56 regular cards (i.e. the numeral and court cards), while in the game of Triumphs just the regular cards were used. In this game, the trump suit was chosen at random. This variant had been imported from Spain (31).
The 1491 Statutes of Bergamo (Statuta Magnificae Civitatis Bergomi) spoke instead, in the following two chapters:
De pena tenentis ludum, vel ludentis in domo. Cap. CLXXI - Si quis in domo, curia, horto, brolo, vel aliqua alia parte Civitatis, vel districtus Bergomi tenuerit ludum aleae, biselantiae, vel reginetae, sozi, santii, ochae, vel alterius cujusvis generis ludi, alea rum, vel cartarum ad tertiam, & quartam, fluxi, ronfae, vel crichae, aut alterius generis cartarum, exceptis triumphis, scachis, & tabulerio, cadat in penam libr. quinquaginta Impérial. Et intelligatur tenere ludum ut supra, sietiam inde fuerit publica vox, & fama: quae pena applicetur pro dimidia accusatori, & pro alia dimidia Com. Berg.
De pena ludentium. Cap. CLXXII - Nullus audeat vel presumat ludere ad azzarum, nec ad aliquem ludorum predictorum de die in Civitate, vel districtu Berg., sub poena libr. duodecim Imp; & si de nocte poena duplicetur: & intelligatur ludere, si reperti fuerint habere antè vel iuxtà se discum, taxillos, vel cartas vel aliud praeparamentum ad ludendum: salvo quòd non comprehendantur in praesenti capitulo ludentes ad triumphos, ad tabulerium, & schachos, usque ad lib. quinque Imp., in uno die. Et quòd in praedictis, & quolibet praedictorum possit Magn. D. Potestas, & ejus Judices procedere per inquisitionem, & per praesumptiones evidentes, & urgentia indicia, & repertos culpabiles ita condemnare: quarum pœnarum medietas sit Comunis Bergomi, & alia medietas accusatoris. Et vincentes teneantur ad restitutionem pro medietate perdenti, & pro alia medietate Com. Bergomi. Et quòd Comunia, & Consules locorum, Viciniarum, & Burgorum, & Consules Vilarum, & Terrarum teneantur notificare ipsos ludentes, & praestantes domos, vel loca ad ludendum, sub pęna lib. quinque Imp. Et quòd possìnt, & debeant fieri denunciae, querellae, accusae, seù conscientiae; & formari inquisitiones de praedictis infrà unum mensem post ludum; alitèr non admittantur accusationes.
Statutes of Argenta (Ferrara)
Statuta Terrae Argentae e veteri manuscripto codice nunc primum edita, Ferrara, Ex Thipographia Camerali, 1781. (Statutes of the territory of Argenta, gleaned from an old manuscript, now published for the first time, Ferrara, Tipography of the Chamber, 1781).
Regimini nostro Argente
In Christi nomine amen Anno eiusdem nativitatis Millesímo Quadrigentesimo trigesimo nono Indictione secunda die VIII. menfìs novembris Retulit Laurentius de mediolano publicus bannitor communis, Argente se exequendo mandatum Dominorum de Regimine Argente publica et alta voce super predone posito, super Platea communis Argente proclamasse, et proclamationem fecisse ut infra videlicet presentibus Michaelle Zanbelo, Magnifico Ioanni de Adiolo, Otaviano de Albinis et alijs.
It is commandment by our Lord Illustrious Prince and Exalted Lord Messer Nicolò, by the grace of God Marchese d'Este, & c., that no person, either of the place or foreigner, of any condition, dare or have the presumption to play at any game of dice or cards, such as "at thirty by strength of me and of you," and "the third and fourth", or any other game, that by common players are considered Bischiza (gambling) games, under penalty of XXV Marchesan lire, such penalty to be applied by the chamber of the prefect, our Lord, and anyone who can be a legitimate accuser will have half the sentence if he is considered credible.
Die XV. Novembris 1439. Item retulit dictus Laurentius iterum et de novo suprascriptum proclama proclamasse ut supra presentibus Bartolomeo Vanchio, Iohane Silvano, et alijs. (p. 193)
Our beloved (subjects)
The Most Excellent and Most Illustrious Prince Messer our Lord Borso Duke of Modena and Reggio, Marquis d'Este, Count of Rovigo & c. in reference to the execerable blasphemies and vilifications that every day are committed by wicked sinners in contempt of the very sacred religion and divine worship, and many other innumerable evils and most wicked sins, which by evidence and experience are known to derive from games, it is established and ordered by the prefect Cossi (name) our Illustrious Lord as part of his illustrious Lordship, do ordain to all persons, of the place and foreigners, of any condition, status, rank and role whatever, that they dare not nor presume to play or cause the playing in public or private places or hidden places so evident in the land of Argenta and in its district, to any dice game, such as "sozo, ocha, badalasso, bolognexe” or other dice game. And also in those games of cartecelle (cards), alla terza alla quarta, alla trenta per forza, a darmene una o due, o a tre e cavallo ovvero altra carta, ai falcinelli, alla carta del duetto, alla spiciga [the third to the fourth, thirty by force, give me one or two, or three and knight, or other of cards, falcinelli, card of the duet spiciga]" or other games that you can call beschizo (1) ( lit: they make bickering in gambling games) , that have been used by various players and cheaters in the past, and that in the future may be used through their wickedness and fraud and counterfeiting without incurring the penalties of this measure.
And likewise that no one dare or presume in any way directly or indirectly to blaspheme almighty God and His glorious Mother Holy Mary, nor any other saint. Under penalty for anyone who games, as mentioned blasphemes or God or our lady, of 12 Marchesan lire, and for each offense to Saints 6 Marchesan lire, and this punishment is given each time that the present provision is contravened.
And in addition said players are obliged to return to any person who had lost, anything that as a result of any of these games, those players had won, regardless of whether it is a small or great number of people to be reimbursed. Understanding that the refund is made to those who have lost, if they shall notify the Chamber. first and not otherwise (otherwise not). Which punishment and restitution must be made within ten days, otherwise they will be condemned. And if those players were notified through a third person, the said money lost must immediately be delivered from the person who had won to the Chamber prefect of our Lord. And if within that period this sentence is not paid, they will be forced to pay by strong action. And if those players or blasphemers are not able to pay that penalty after this deadline, they will be given three lacerations of the rope (3 floggings). And anyone accusing these players will be considered a legitimate accuser, and it will be notified that whoever will accuse these players, if the accusers had also played them, their name will be kept secret and will be condemned for no fault provided that notifications occur in the ways and at the times said, being considered that they will be deemed trustworthy witnesses who have played and who have sworn on any name and number of players who have won. And the same process will take place for each accuser of blasphemers who is believed, and his name will be kept secret , and of the penalty half will go to the middle Chamber of the prefect our Lord, and the other half to the accuser. And each person, as mentioned, who conducts someone in his own home, or in some inn or tavern or shop to play games will fall to the penalty described above, and following the way mentioned above, pay as above said. And the prefect our Lord wishes and commands that the knowledge and jurisdiction of the proceedings and the condemnation of the aforementioned excesses rests and is the responsibility of the Vicar of this his land. And no attorney or other person may plead in favor of the accused under penalty of 20 Marchesan lire, and will be considered an infamous intervention. This decree applies notwithstanding the existence of various measures and other commandments sometimes made on this topic, which should be considered in their particulars replaced by this.
Millesimo quatercentesmo sexagesimo tertio 1463 (pp. 214-216).
(1) Beschizo = bisticcio, i.e. games that lead to bickering, quarreling. "BESCHIZI. The offense suffered for anything, for slight reason, and showing one insulted or disgusted. The person beschiziosa would mean, maybe in the right way, annoying, fussy, irritable" (Piero Monti, Vocabolario dei dialetti della città e diocesi di Como, con esempi e riscontri di lingue antiche e moderne (Vocabulary of the dialects of the city and diocese of Como, with examples and evidence from the ancient and modern languages), Milan, Typographical Society of Italian Classics, 1845, p. 2).
In Statuta Civitatis Ferentini (Ferentino, province of Frosinone, dated to XV Century), the Rubric CXX "Quod nullus ludat ad taxillos" (c. 24r), together with the prohibition on playing dice (Item statuimus quod nullus presumat ludere ad aliquem ludum taxillorum) or gambling games in general (ludere ad azardos pro velle sine pena) and with an absolute ban on playing in churches under penalty of twice the amount expected for the other cases (Et nulli liceat in aliqua ecclesia ludere ad taxillos ad penam dupli), but permitting, from the beginning of May to the end of September, in streets and public places, without incurring any penalty, cards, cricca "(three of a kind"), ronfa, triumphs, etc., with the warning not to curse or blaspheme God or the Saints (1) providing in case of contravention a penalty of twice that indicated by the blasphemy rubric in general:"Adiicientes quod a kalendis mensis maii usque ad finem mensis septembris possit quilibet ludere sine pena per vias et plateas publicas ad ludum cartarum, videlicet ad criccham, ad rumpham et ad triumphos, ad spiczicum et ad ludum directum, videlicet «chi fa più giochi» tantum et non [ad alios] ludos; contrafacientes pena supradicta pu[nia]ntur. Et, quicunque maledixerit seu blasfemaverit Deo vel sanctis eius in ludo, solvat penam dupli que in statuto de blasfemationibus continetur et nihilominus solvat penam de ludo".
(1) Blasphemies by players were one of the many reasons that led the Church to condemn card games. In many cases for the formulation of statutes, the secular Governments used clerics, such as, for example, in Rieti, where in 1489 the City Council accepted the proposals of Friar Andrea of Faenza (the architect who collaborated on the construction of Saint Petronius in Bologna) for a series of reforms on the civil and moral life of the city, including a hard stance against those who blasphemed while playing: "Item contra ludentes ad ludos vetitos et prohibitos et vendentes et retinentes cartas et taxillos ac etiam facientes illos et blasfemantes Deum et sanctos dixit et consuluit puniendos esse secundum formam statuti et reformationum civitatis Rheate" (Rieti, Archivio di Stato, Riformanze 47, 1488-1492, c. 93).
Statutes of San Ginesio, Sarnano Urbisaglia (Marche)
These statutes allowed, during Christmas festivities and within certain spending limits (one drink), the playing of games not allowed during the rest of the year. Gambling games were always prohibited, and players coming from other municipalities were expelled: In San Ginesio (IV.78, V.6 and 7), for example, ludus tabularum and taxillorum sive cartharum were prohibited, but one can play the former game, and no other, in the town square, which is under the control of all, Ludendo aliquem scoctum (1).
The Statutes of Sarnano (2), ludi crimen satis Deo detestabile et hominibus pernitiosum fore arbitrantes, ex quo furta, caedes et blasfemiae quotidie exoriuntur, allowed ludi alae, azardi, taxillorum, tabularum, cartarum and all others in which the stake was a sum of money, excepto ludo scachorum, pilae, plastrellae, saltationis, iaculationis et aliis huiusmodi ludis, qui virtutis seu fortitudinis alicuius ostendendi gratia fierent (IV. 4), where one could play for 10 bolognini. However adludum tabularum et triumphorum (3) it was possible to play for something to eat and drink, as long as the game takes place publicly in the main square or in the City Hall (outside, of course) and the total amount in the game did not exceed 8 bolognini, and finally, with the condition that all participate in eating and drinking, certainly not very richly. The offenders received a 10 pounds fine and 3 days in jail.
In Statutes of Urbisaglia (I.1, III.7) among the forbidden games are listed - besides ludus azardi, taxillorum vel tabularum - ludus alearum, cionorum, laquearum, piolorum et virgittarum and others (games with pins, cards, dices and rods); Ludus tabularum de totis tabulis and chess, on the other hand, are allowed. All games are prohibitedin taverns and wherever wine was sold. During Christmas time, permission was granted by the Podestà [Mayor].
(1) The Statutes of San Ginesio date back to XIV century.
(2) The manuscript of the Statutes of Sarnano, which dates back to 1507, contains some sections already present in previous Statutes of the city.
(3) In our opinion this indication on Ludum Triumphorum was reported in an already existing rubric in a previous law of the city, dating back no later than to the second half of the XV century.
The Statutes of Fiume, granted to the city by Ferdinand I in 1530, were very permissive, tolerating many games condemned elsewhere: cards, dice, table games, ronfa and triumphs were allowed, with the exception, along with others, of basset: “Liceat tamen tam in terra Flùis quam in districtu ludere ad ludum tabularum seu alearum & ad ludum cartharum ac runfe & triumphorum vel ad alium similem ludum, excepto ludo bassette...".
Statutes of San Marino (1600) "Leges Statutae Reipubblicae Sancti Marini"
Published in Rimini "ex officina Johannis Simbenii"
Written in Latin in six books, these Leges Statutae represent the seventh and last of the municipal statutes adopted in San Marino from the twelfth century. The rules regarding gambling are in the Third Book, entitled Maleficiorum, which, divided into 74 rubrics, rules criminal law. We do not find in them substantial differences from the standards promulgated by other Italian Satutes: games of dice and cards are prohibited, and any other game based exclusively on luck that involved winning or losing money. Excluded from this list are tarocchi, chess and table games, that being also based on skill, were somewhat tolerated.
De poena ludentium ad aleas, vel taxillos
NEMO audeat, vel praesumat in Terra Sancti Marini, vel eius curia, et districtu, vel prope confines dictae Terrae per unum milliare ludere ad aleas, seu cartas, nec ad aliquem ludum taxillorum in quo perdatur, vel vincatur pecunia, aut alia res, praeterquam ad taroccos, tabulas, vel scaccos, sub poena solidorum viginti pro quolibet, et qualibet vice, et eadem poena puniatur, qui ludum in domo sua acceptaverit, vel ad ludum mutuaverit aleas, taxillos, vel pecunias, vel alium pro eo sive sui nomine ludere fecerit. Et quilibet possit accusare contrafacientem, et teneatur secreto, et habeat tertiam partem poenae, et ei credatur cum iuramento, et uno teste fidedigno.
From the Act of Constitution of the Monte di Pieta of Bovolone
The Act, dated Saturday, August 24, 1538, is in the State Archive of Verona, Mensa Vescovile, roll no. 16
Item che non sai persona alcuna.... che ardisca o presumi zugar né far zugar né in in publico né in secreto a carte terochi o dadi de sorte alcuna...(Item that nobody .... dare or presume to play or to do play others in public or in secret at Tarot cards or dice of any sort...)
Statutes from 17th Century Piedmont
A rule that was established from the first moment when the cards appeared, was prohibition of playing in front of churches and convents, as well as in front of houses of monks or priests. In this prohibition were also included many other games as we understand, from 17th century Piedmont, the Editti Antichi, e Nuovi dei Sovrani Principi della Real Casa di Savoia(Ancient and New Edicts of the Sovereign Princes of the Royal House of Savoy), Turino, Bartolomeo Zappata 1681, p. 262.
Part Three - Book I
"In addition we forbid any person, of any state, grade, condition whatever, to serenade, say dishonest words, dance, play on any kind of instrument, sing, swear, play carte (cards), tarocchi (tarot), dice, balla (ball), ballone (big ball), paramigli (?), marbles, rubattine (related to rubare, to steal?), palletti (little balls), or any other game not mentioned here, in front of the Church and the houses of the herein mentioned monasteries, etc.". Dato (Issued) in Rivoli, July 4, 1654. C. Emanuel (Carlo Emmanuele II).
Giovanni Domenico Rinaldi (Ioannis Dominici Raynaldi), Observationes Criminales, Civiles, et Mixtae (Criminal, Civil, and Mixed Observations), Libro Terzo, Roma, Ex Officina Haeredum Corbelletti, 1691. p. 130.
Capitolo XXX – Rubrica 'Dell’Uso prohibito del Giuoco' (Rubric ‘On the Prohibited uses of Games’)
Se le porte sono chiuse, ci sarà la convinzione che si giochi a giochi proibiti (If the doors are closed, there will be the belief that prohibited games are being played).
Note, quod licet prohibitio ludendo debeat intelligi de ludo prohibito, ut est is, in quo fortunae tantum iudicium operatur, ut ex Bursatt. Farin. & Paschal. Dicit Muta loc. citat. n. 34. & sic videatur exceptus ludus schaccorum, & ut dicitur à tarocchini, in quorum quolibet, ut dicit Muta num. 36, magnam partem habet ludentis ingenium; Nihilominus quando ludentes ad ludum tarochorum stant cum ianuis clausis praesumptio stat contra eos; quod ludant ad ludum prohibitum, nam etiam cum illis aleis malitia hominum adinvenit modum ludendi, ut dicitur à primiera, tagliata, ac alijs ludis prohibitis.
16th century statutes in Calamecca, Crespole, Lanciole and Piteglio
Roberto Barducci (ed.), La vita nei Castelli. Gli Statuti del XVI secolo di Calamecca, Crespole, Lanciole e Piteglio (Life in the Castles. Sixteenth century statutes in Calamecca, Crespole, and Piteglio Lanciole) Volume 3 of the Collana di studi sulla montagna pistoiese, Comune di Piteglio (Series of studies on the mountains of Pistoia, City of Piteglio), 2001.
"No one of any rank or condition, as much as place, as foreigners, may dare to play cards or dice within the walls of our land, including taverns as much as private houses, even in the streets or in other place, within a perimeter of five hundred yards from the border of our land "(p. 42).
"And that none of the inhabitants of the City of Lanciole may play cards, or any other game, under any roof of this castle, under the penalty of five pounds each, and every single time half of the fine will go to the City and the other half to the accuser, except three days before and three after our feast of St. Bartolomeo" (p. 48).
The Statute of the Island of Giglio of the year 1558
Silvio Pucci (ed.), Lo Statuto dell’Isola del Giglio dell’anno 1558 (The Statute of the Island of Giglio of the year 1558), Volume 30 of Documentazione di storia, Dipartimento di scienze storiche, giuridiche, politiche e sociali dell'Università degli studi di Siena, 1999 (Volume 30 of Documentation of history, Department of historical, legal, political and social sciences, University of Siena, 1999).
C. XXIIII - Dela pena di chi ioca a zara = On for the penalty to be imposed on anyone who plays zara [a game with three dice].
"Therefore we establish and ordain that no person can or should play zara or any other game of dice or cards [carte]. And whoever contravenes, pay as penalty, for each time, XX soldi. And whoever accomodates those games in their home, pay for each time double that penalty, and anyone may accuse him .... " (p. XLII).
We find isolated cases of the condemnation of the game of Triumphs in Assisi, with a public announcement dated at 1470 (in this regard see the essay Allowed Triumphs, Forbidden Triumphs), and in Padua with a sermon that the preacher Roberto Caracciolo of Lecce gave in 1455 (see the essay Laudabiles et Vituperabiles). To learn about the Church's position on games, see the articles Saint Bernardino and the Card and Playing Cards and Gambling. For further documents of the XV century concerning the game of Triumphs, visit the link http://trionfi.com/0/e/36/ at the English-language site www.trionfi.com.